Nitrous or nitrogen oxide is generally known as laughing gas. It can make you giggle if released in air. But it can do so in another way also. Just release it in your vehicle’s engine, and you will get goosebumps with the power boost in the engine. If you are a video game lover, you would be aware of the need and importance of Nitrous to win a race. Some of you might even have seen the cars using nitrous boost in movies. But, have you ever imagined that how does it do so?
It is known to all that the power of engine depends upon the amount of fuel burning inside the combustion chamber. Which again depends upon the capacity of the engine. But the capacity of engine is fixed and can not be changed. So, in order to draw more amount of power from the same engine, we would have to burn more amount of fuel somehow. For burning more fuel, more amount of air is required. To do all these we need to increase the density of charge inside the combustion chamber. The increase in density of charge would cause more amount of air-fuel to be sucked in, burning of which can produce greater amount of power. This can be done by two ways:
1) Using Turbo or Superchargers
2) Using Nitrous Oxide
In this post we will discuss about the Nitrous System for automobiles in detail. So let’s start digging deeper.
The chemical name for Nitrous is Nitrous Oxide Or Di Nitrogen Oxide. It’s chemical formula is N2O. It remains gaseous and non – flammable at room temperature. But at higher temperature it decomposes to Nitrogen and Oxygen
Working of Nitrous Systems
Nitrous or NOS systems consists of N2O canisters containing Nitrous Oxide in liquefied form. This liquid Nitrous is stored under very high pressure. The canister is connected to the engine through nozzles. It can be activated using a push button or by a sensor connected to the throttle position sensor of the vehicle. The sensor connected to the throttle position sensor can activate the Nitrous sensing any throttle boost. When liquid Nitrous is released inside the engine through nozzles, it vaporizes. The vaporization of Nitrous causes cooling inside engine cylinder. This reduces the temperature inside the combustion chamber. Due to the low temperature, the density of the air inside the combustion chamber increases. This causes more amount of air to be sucked inside the cylinder. This enables a higher amount of fuel to be burnt inside the same cylinder. Further, the Nitrous Oxide molecules decompose inside the combustion chamber due to high temperature. The decomposition of one molecule of N2O produces two Nitrogen and one Oxygen atom. The Oxygen released in this process further helps in combustion, boosting up the engine power far beyond it’s normal capacity. Depending upon the mode of Nitrous supply NOS systems are of two types :
1) Wet system
2) Dry System
In this system, the extra fuel is supplied together with the Nitrous using separate nozzles. It is done by using two separate nozzles for the Nitrous and extra fuel. The nozzles are controlled using solenoid valves. The solenoid valves can be activated by using push button or by sensing throttle position data. The amount of Nitrous or fuel being delivered, can be varied by changing the jets installed in the nozzles
In this system Nitrous is supplied in intake manifold using nozzles. There is no separate provision for extra fuel supplying nozzle. The extra fuel required is supplied through the fuel injectors based on commands of ECU. This extra fuel prevents the air fuel mixture from being lean.
The NOS system is a great tool to boost up engine horsepower. But this system is so expensive that it is out of the reach of common people. Also, this system is a threat to the safety of the rider or driver. This is the reason why it is banned in many countries fir common people. This system is extremely useful in Races or Rallies , but for common people it is extremely expensive.